Carbon Dioxide in its solid form of dry ice usually has a
white opaque appearance. Through a process known as sublimation,
it will change directly to vapor leaving no liquid residue or
clean up. The sublimation temperature for dry ice is minus 109.3° F.
Dry ice is made by allowing liquid CO2 to expand to
atmospheric pressure through a nozzle into a chamber. A portion
of the constricted liquid vaporizes and cools the remaining
liquid CO2 to form fine solid dry ice particles which are
compressed into solid dry ice blocks weighing approximately 50-60
pounds. These large blocks are often sliced or crushed into many
commercially available shapes and sizes.
An alternate method is to expand liquid carbon dioxide into a
chamber to form dry ice snow, which is then compressed and
extruded through a perforated plate to form nuggets or pellets.
There are several size pellets available.
Dry ice is used in poultry, red meat and sausage plants to
retard heat build-up, bacteria and salmonella growth as well as
to prevent water weight loss during shipment.
In the bakery industry it is used to mix ingredients,
eliminate moisture and to keep yeast from working until the
Dry ice is used in a number of commercial applications
including airline catering, the manufacture of golf balls and
fire extinguishers, flash freezing in the rubber industry, absorbing
ammonia refrigeration leaks and creating fog for the
entertainment industry. It is extensively used in the
manufacturing of plastics, chemicals, beverages, pharmaceuticals,
metals and many other products. Dry ice is also important to
mining, construction, and a variety of laboratory and medical
applications. One of the newest applications for dry ice is Dry